On September 18, 2018, the European Commission has opened formal antitrust proceedings against German car manufacturers BMW, Daimler and VW, including VW, Porsche and Audi, for possible collusion to avoid competition on the development and roll-out of technology to clean the emissions of petrol and diesel passenger cars in the EEA (see press release here.

The Commission dropped other discussions among these manufacturers on technical cooperation from the scope of its investigation.  Originally, in 2017 both the FCO and the European Commission reviewed information on the allegations, before the European Commission carried out inspections. Silke Heinz is quoted on the opening of proceedings in Global Competition Review, see here.